How to assemble the Questionnaire

Here are some tips to make an effective survey from a good questionnaire.
In general, the statistical questions (those that serve more embarrassing to classify the questionnaire for socioeconomic status) should be made at the end of the questionnaire, but may be necessary to use some initial questions filter to know if any do the survey to the respondent, and for appropriate use of hops in the questionnaire.
All survey questions must be clear and not ambiguous or vague.
When there are no scales, we recommend you ask the respondent to choose one option.
The categories "do not knows" and "no answer" should be included as little as possible.
Multiple-choice lists should be short, comprehensive and manageable for the interviewer and respondent.
Rotation is recommended reading, as it is known that people tend to choose what is most remember, is the last thing he was appointed.
Finally, the success of a good depends on a questionnaire survey to ask what is fair, with good management and questions on topics ranging from general to specific.

Opinion Surveys or Opinion Polls?

There is an ambiguity about whether we should speak of opinion surveys or opinion polls either.
That is, if both terms are synonymous.
But in reality they are not, because although what defines an opinion poll is correct when predicated of an opinion poll, the converse does not hold.
A poll is a survey research, but social. In contrast, a sample survey can be done to obtain information about the behavior of the stars or the characteristics of books in a library.
In other words, there are surveys that are not of opinion, while no research surveys that are not polls, agreed to call for polls to quantitative studies through surveys.
Although it is possible to do an opinion poll.
Moreover, "survey" is called to the technique of data collection, but also the result of completing a questionnaire.
Issues to be considered not to confuse the meanings and know well what is spoken.

How do I earn money paid surveys?

Can you earn money answering surveys?

Many websites advertise affiliations for paid opinion surveys with the promise of monetary compensation, most of the time a few dollars, for those who answer these surveys.
However, many people believe that being noted in many surveys companies paid or unpaid can earn much money, which is not guaranteed.
Case that public opinion surveys, paid or unpaid, are a form of research, either on a product-cars, computers, food-or service-use of the Internet, airlines, travel, and who orders a work of this nature would like to know more about their customers or users, actual or potential.
However, the person seeking a fee for answering a survey, perhaps out of necessity to earn money, supposed to send you surveys on all kinds of items frequently, which is rarely the case.
The client of the pollsters put their money, and pay for good information. But he, for example if you produce cars, only interested in the views of those who can buy their brand and type of car, and not to anyone willing to answer a survey.
Therefore, the pollsters selected specific people according to the profile of the survey, which reduces the margin of chances of being selected to answer a survey in exchange for money for anyone.
This is understandable, as noted, considering that he handles the survey would like to take your money invested, and that opinion polls are research tools for certain targets, such as trade.
In some cases, you can have a little luck and answer surveys which pay very well, but regular attendance is by no means guaranteed.

As conceived opinion survey

As conceived opinion survey

When planning or designing an opinion survey is essential to note here:
1) choose the universe to be surveyed
2) define the statistical unit or unit of analysis Stats
3) collect information to organize the opinion survey, classify and organize
4) choose the method or data collection technique, the type of survey (individual, personal, phone, email)
5) choosing the sampling method (random, quota, cluster, etc.).
6) define the variables to be analyzed and the type of statistical analysis will be done with data from questionnaires
7) establish the sample size
8) define a sampling error according to relevant factors such as budget, time and type of sampling design
9) establish the economic cost of the survey and total execution time of the investigation
10) organize the field work calendar, staff and resources.

Two types of political surveys: pre-election and voting intentions

In the pre-election survey is usually evaluated trends, opinions and attitudes related to the assessment of both policies and actions of government and with certain people.
In the first case, the pre-election survey can evaluate public policies, or the possible impact on public reform or specific action.
In the second pre-election survey seeks to know where certain personalities are known and candidates.
In contrast, pre-election survey seeks eminenemente know if people would vote, not vote or do not yet know, a particular candidate.
It is characteristic of pre-election poll people to try to know as a candidate associated with certain characteristics, such as being honest, experienced, tough, and many others.
This will seek to strengthen their candidate maintainers public properties by adjusting their speech and behavior in the campaign to the wishes of the electorate.
Sometimes the voting intention poll is combined with a simulation of voting in a ballot box is delivered to the respondent or with different ballots to choose one and "vote".

The types of survey: individual survey

There are, strictly speaking, various types of opinion polls and attitudes registration.
But if we analyze the different types of surveys in processes for the collection of data we can distinguish three major types of survey: staff survey, the self-administered survey and telephone survey.
From now on, we must clarify, we are talking about surveys that apply to people or survey investigating the opinions and attitudes of individuals.
Discussed in this post the individual survey.


The personal interview is the best known of the three types, and today almost no one living in urban centers has not been sought to answer some.
This is a typical face-to-face survey.
In this type of survey requires a team of trained interviewers who, after receiving an instruction concerning the nature of the survey, how to administer the questionnaire, some problems with certain questions, how to access the survey, should contact the persons elected to be interviewed.
Sometimes when it is a multistage sample survey, the last stage, which involves selecting people who have to answer, is undertaken by the interviewer.
At other times, however, already has the address and name of the person, as when performed on a standard sample, eg a professional society.
It is the task of the interviewer approached the respondent with a structured or semi-structured questionnaire, or with any questions closed or open and closed questions (discuss this later).
One of the methodological issues is often not sufficiently appreciated is that all questions must be made strictly in the order they appear in the questionnaire, in the same tone and, above all, without adding or omitting anything, even a comma in the text survey questionnaire.
This ensures the objectivity of the results from the application of the same stimulus to all respondents. Let's be clear, as always, that these considerations are made on the assumption that the questionnaire is objective and is built by professionals, that the questions measure what they purport to measure, and so on.
Some types of personal opinion polls are coincidental survey, the survey at random or random (or which includes, as recorded at a final stage of sampling a random selection process) and survey fees.
The coincidental survey is a type of non-probability sampling (later we will analyze it), or a sample in which no one knows the error of estimate (we'll explain later) or error resulting from the spread of the sample data population. In the survey, the interviewer takes coincidental random people in a busy city and survey.
It's that simple, as they make bad journalists and pollsters (and political operatives, why deny it), although some research may be used responsibly. In the survey at random or random pollster has a table of random numbers that tells you based on the number of questionnaires to be completed, for example, which household member should interview and may in some cases replace him in case of absence for an individual of the same sex and similar socioeconomic level and age.
Finally, the quota sampling is one in which the interviewer and out of the office of the institute or consultancy or agency with a guideline on how many men interviewed, a few women, what ages, what you already know what you want and crossing is going as the respondent.
As can be seen, the random survey individual may lead to the replacement of absent or rejecting entevistado a fee.

Opinion polls as a way of sampling

Today mention an error that is usually found frequently in the literature on surveys and opinion polls.
The same is to confuse all the surveys for opinion polls or social surveys. If we wish to clarify what is a survey, or provide a definition, we must make it clear that by no means something that applies to people necessarily.
In fact, the survey is a technique of data collection (some might question how far the data are "collected" as one who takes something that's already been out there and are not created, at least to some extent by those who do research, but that is another problem that will address later) that derives or is an application of the sampling procedure.
Specifically is the use of certain standardized and validated procedures under which the research takes information on a representative sample of a population or universe, as is usually called the total haw investigated.
It is clear that the purpose of such research procedures is to improve our insight of some phenomenon, say a good explanation.
One can conduct a survey in which sample is selected books from a library upon which a questionnaire is completed in some information, because what matters is that the procedure and representative sample.
This, as already mentioned, results from the application of the mathematical theory of probabilities to the investigation of phenomena, whether or not social.
A sample survey differs from a census in which it is to administer a questionnaire to all people concerned, while the survey is always applied to a sample, the best representative.

History of opinion polls: the individual votes

An interesting chapter in the history of what opinion polls are the "special votes". These consisted of a sort of simulacrum of elections conducted in order to obtain in advance, or before election day, data about what would happen. The dream of prophecy.
It must be said, however, that something somewhat similar to what is even then we will detail today by the consulting firms and public opinion, since in many cases pre-election polls include in its final section the request that the interviewed take an envelope delivered by the interviewer, and make out of sight of it a choice between several ballots that were granted.
Generally the envelope, sealed, placed in an urn or in another larger envelope. But the difference is that this information is contrasted with that obtained in the survey, which does have scientific rigor, if we are talking about a serious institution.
Well, the individuals were a voting ballots through homely, somewhat revoleo who commissioned some American newspapers hungry for scoops.
The first was conducted by the Harrisburg Daily Star and Pennsylvania and Raleigh were local. The procedures, characterized by methodological rigor were not possess such as completing a paper form with the name of the person who was going to vote and then mail it to the drafting, mail surveys and even a "vote" with polls and all done in some busy streets.
Precisely, and because of that lack of rigor, individual votes were an important step on the origin of the opinion polls because they were a terrible failure.
In the twentieth century the best known were those of a magazine, Literary Digest, in 1936 and after spending lots of money in mailing and processing data from surveys 2,000,000 wrongly predicted would win the Republican candidate.
George Gallup, Elmo Roper and Crossley Archival announced, after surveying more than 5,000 people not Eleanor Roostvelt win. And they were not wrong. Gallup and his friends inauguranon the time of the polls employing representative samples adjusted odds of socioeconomic status, gender of the respondents and age.
This, with variations, is what is done today. The impact that caused the failure of Literary Digest and Gallup and company's success led to the knowledge of the general public and widely accepted use of sample surveys of opinion, although market research already used.
In short, as expected, in both the U.S. and Europe came a series of private and state institutions whose primary or sole task was to carry out opinion surveys using sampling procedures.

Opinion polls: history and some methodological details

Opinion polls are not, in fact nothing but a way of investigating. In particular, are a method, or a set of methods or techniques, aimed at collecting information about some aspect of social reality. Properly understood, then as a research strategy of social phenomena, the poll is fairly recent, then use systematic and controlled (and successful) dates from the interwar period of the twentieth century.
The practical reasons that led to its development (something quick) and implementation were, naturally, in war, economic and largely related to the profound social and political changes that were operated on is this particular period. However, beyond the needs of specific practices that gave rise, the survey would not have been possible without the theoretical and methodological developments that support and, previously, had not taken place. As noted, the survey is provided, among other things, the application of certain mathematical procedures to obtain information on social reality. Here it should be noted the importance of American sociology, as embodied in major theorists and researchers such as Paul Lazarsfeld and the famous George Gallup.
In the next posting will show how, in the American case in particular, individual ballots and certain developments in social psychology set the stage, so to speak, the emergence of the survey, the opinion poll as we know it today, meaning a tool of public record.
Let us note finally that, as background music for all these reasons and background, there has always been associated with research through opinion polls what Karl Popper called the old dream of prophecy: the desire to know what happen. It is not necessary to know what a survey or to properly take this factor into account, but if we arrive at an understanding of the case, it should not be olivdar.
Many are those who do not mind, and many people mistakenly believe have achieved.

Technical data of a survey

The technical specifications or technical data from a survey is a description, brief but compendious, the most important factors relating to the way it was done the same. It is important to remember that opinion polls is a social research, or rather a part of a process of social research, and as such is the correct application of certain scientific methods and validated a theoretical knowledge.
In particular, the data sheet, usually seen in a recuadrito or a footnote in the report with the results of the survey provides information on the time of the survey data (when people were surveyed), the period if it was during the weekend or on weekdays (this, we shall see, can be very important) in what place, how the respondents were selected and what was the total population on which the survey.
This is because, for example, the results of a survey of adolescents can be very different if the survey is administered to adolescents in a city that would be obtained if you apply to the entire adult population of that city, that very probably have a different view on the issue, and even different from the results that may shed a survey of adolescents in the country.
The sheet reveals the methodology that was carried on the survey data and, if this was done with the appropriate technical rigor, these procedures should yield similar results if we repeat the data collection work under the same guidelines. Public and replicable This is typical of scientific knowledge.
That a work is not that a sheet is a good reason to have some caution about its reliability.

Opinion Polls and mathematics

Opinion surveys and mathematics.
Sample surveys are the application in a specific area of certain mathematical, in particular of some of the mathematical theory of probabilities procedures or statistical mathematical research.
This are some assumptions based on the assumption that certain operations can be performed with numbers can perform when mathematics no longer pure and becomes applied and represents aspects of social reality.
Made them, is supposed to be possible to measure a specific social aspect, the intensity of the positive image of such candidate, or measure the views in favour, against and indifferent about a specific problem.
Is that the applicability of the procedure of the survey is based on accepted an isomorphism between mathematical properties and properties of social phenomena. Once assumed this, you can use methods and techniques (sample, designs for example) appropriate to establish which is the best way to learn about a certain aspect under investigation.
These methods are standardized and validated, as they are all scientific procedures procedures. It is important to remember that a survey seriously is apply a background of theoretical and methodological knowledge to a social research.

Polietapic sample desing

What is a polietapic sample design?
A sample design polietápico is a type of design research project to collect data from a survey which is divided into various stages of planning and implementation.
These stages cover various criteria that are deployed to reach the final sample, or to individuals that will finally answered the survey.
Let us remember that a sample is a part of a specific population or universe (e.g. a country or a city citizens) is selected to obtain information that will be generalized to the whole population with some margin of error.
As a result, when according to rigorous methodological guidelines, the sample will be representative of this population.
To make this happen, the universe will be successively divided according to different criteria to reach the people you select.
For example may split the provinces or States of a country and select some rightly gaming, dodging, and then in selected provinces applied with a proportionality to the population parameters selection criterion.
If there are 10% of high socio-economic level in the population, determining the sample shall be about that value.

Are political polls reliable?

The degree of reliability that we must give a political survey depends on several factors, such as company, Institute or consultant to conduct the survey, the way as has done it, the use of the results and the source from which we obtain information about their results.
The trap or error can be in several of these aspects, can be a phantom company or "ad hoc" (recognized companies even have an alternative name to sign when do things well to reduce risk), may be carried out with little professionalism is bad, intentionally, or be failure at any stage of the research process.
Additionally you may own responsible for Institute, the client that has hired it or a journalist or Communicator, knowingly or not, provide partial information or directly to distort the results.

Opinion Surveys

Welcome to opinion polls.
Here we want access to the best resources and information (survey analysis, theory of the surveys, advice, methodology) high quality about the opinion polls and their use.
Particularly include articles, opinions and comments on theoretical and practical aspects of social surveys and opinion polls.
We will discuss issues related to the methodology of the surveys and his theory on the one hand, and other practical aspects relating to applicability in various circumstances and on various types of research.
We want to also discuss teórico-metodológicos aspects related to political, electoral, intend to vote, candidate image surveys and the like.
Also sometimes present comments and some published surveys, we can discuss. Espearmos you can find here what you want from the exciting world of social research through surveys.
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